A Kiji Gatherer scans over the rows of a Kiji table using the MapReduce framework and output key-value pairs. Gatherers are a flexible job type and can be used to extract or aggregate information into a variety of formats based on the output specification and reducer used. Common tasks for gatherers include calculating sums across an entire table, extracting features to train a model, and pivoting information from one table into another. You should use a gatherer when you need to pull data out of a Kiji table into another format or to feed it into a Reducer.

Classes Overview

There are three classes for an application that wants to use gatherers:

All gatherers extend the abstract class org.kiji.mapreduce.gather.KijiGatherer and override its abstract methods as described below. Clients should be familiar with the org.kiji.mapreduce.gather.GatherContext class, which is used to output the Gatherer's key-value pairs. Finally, while gather jobs can be launched from the command line with kiji gather, org.kiji.mapreduce.gather.KijiGatherJobBuilder can be used to construct a MapReduce job that runs a given gather with configured input, output, and reducer. The job can then be launched programmatically.

Using the API

All gatherers must extend the parameterized class KijiGatherer with the types of the key and value of their output. Concrete gatherers must implement these methods:

  • Class<?> getOutputKeyClass() and Class<?> getOutputValueClass(). These methods should return the classes of the output keys and values emitted by the gatherer.
  • KijiDataRequest getDataRequest(). This methods specifies the columns retrieved while scanning rows from the input table. It should construct and return a KijiDataRequest.
  • void gather(KijiRowData input, GathererContext<K, V> context). This methods contains the gatherer's logic that translates its input into key-value pairs. It will be called once per row processed by the gatherer task. input will contain the columns from the row as requested by the KijiDataRequest returned by getDataRequest(). The gatherer should use its context parameter to emit key-value pairs as detailed below.

While processing a row, a gatherer may access data from external stores through KeyValueStores by implementing Map<String, KeyValueStore<?, ?>> getRequiredStores(). This method should construct and return a map specifying all the KeyValueStores that the gatherer wants to access. The KeyValueStores may then later be accessed from the gather() method through the GathererContext. For more details, you may check the KeyValue Stores section in this guide.

Optionally, a gatherer may implement setup() and cleanup() to initialize and finalize resources that can be reused during the gather task. These methods will be called once by each task, setup() before processing input rows and cleanup() after the task is done processing. If you wish to use a KeyValueStore, it should be opened once with context.getStore(storeName) in setup(), saved in a member variable, and closed in cleanup().

The class of a gatherer's output key and value may have restrictions depending on the output format used with this gatherer. For example, if used with a sequence file output format, classes must either be Avro types or implement the interface. See the Command Line Tools section of this guide for more about output format options.

As mentioned above, a gatherer's gather method has a org.kiji.mapreduce.gather.GatherContext argument. This class has a number of methods which are relevant to a gatherer author:

  • void write(K key, V value). Emits a key-value pair. The key-value pair will be later processed by the reduce step of this MapReduce job. The type of key and value should match the parameter types of the gatherer's class.
  • void incrementCounter(Enum<?> counter). Increments a mapreduce job counter. This can be useful for calculating aggregate counts about the full MapReduce job (for example, you can use a counter to calculate the total number of input rows containing malformed data). This method is common to all KijiContexts.


 * Example of a gatherer class that extracts the size of households per zip-code.
 * Processes entities from an input table that contains households with:
 *   <li> a column 'info:zip_code' with the zip code of a household;
 *   <li> a column 'members:*' with the household's members names;
 * and emits one key/value pair per household to a sequence file on HDFS, where:
 *   <li> the key is the zip code of the household, as an IntWritable,
 *   <li> the value is the number of persons in the household, as an IntWritable.
public class FamilySizeGatherer extends KijiGatherer<IntWritable, IntWritable> {
  public static enum Counters {

  /** {@inheritDoc} */
  public Class<?> getOutputKeyClass() {
    // Zip code encoded as an IntWritable:
    return IntWritable.class;

  /** {@inheritDoc} */
  public Class<?> getOutputValueClass() {
    // Family size (number of persons) encoded as an IntWritable:
    return IntWritable.class;

  /** {@inheritDoc} */
  public KijiDataRequest getDataRequest() {
    // Fetch columns 'info:zip_code' and map-family 'members':
    return KijiDataRequest.builder()
            .add("info", "zip_code")

  /** {@inheritDoc} */
  public void gather(KijiRowData input, GathererContext<IntWritable, IntWritable> context)
      throws IOException {
    // Extract the required data from the input row:
    final Integer zipCode = input.getMostRecentValue("info", "zip_code");
    if (zipCode == null) {
      // Zip code is missing from the input row, report the bad input and move on:

    // Since we only care about the size of the family,
    // rather than the data stored for each member,
    // we only extract the qualifiers for the "members" family.
    final Set<String> members = input.getQualifiers("members");

    // Some computation: for this simple example,
    // we compute the family size from the set of its members:
    final int familySize = members.size();

    // Emit a pair (zip code, family size) to the configured output through the context:
    context.write(new IntWritable(zipCode), new IntWritable(familySize));

The gatherer described above may be used on the command line as follows. It expects a Kiji input table whose rows represent households, with a column 'info:zip_code' that contains the Zip code of each household and with a column family 'members' that lists the household members.

kiji gather \
    --gatherer=my.application.package.FamilySizePerZipCodeGatherer \
    --input="format=kiji table=kiji://.env/default/household_table_name" \
    --output="format=seq file=hdfs://cluster/path/to/sequence-file nsplits=1"

With this command, the gather job will write its output key-value pairs to sequence files in the directory hdfs://cluster/path/to/sequence-file/. Each entry in the sequence file will correspond to one household and will contain the household Zip code as a key and the number of household members as a value.

Each gather task will produce a single sequence file hdfs://cluster/path/to/sequence-file/part-m-<gather task #>. The number of gatherer tasks is currently set to be the number of regions in the input table: each gather task processes one region from the input table. Therefore, the nsplits parameter of the job output specification is not used in this context when no reducer is specified.